• Kathrin Ratcliffe

Know your Diagnosis

Updated: Mar 17

There are a few different types of Diabetes - Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes are the main three. They are different in many ways with regards to what causes them and how to treat them.


Knowing what type of Diabetes you have is important because it enables you to manage your condition in the best way possible. It is also important that those around you understand which type of Diabetes you have so they can support you.


Let's have a look at the three main types of Diabetes:


TYPE 1 DIABETES

Type 1 diabetes occurs when there is NO insulin being made by the pancreas anymore. The beta-cells on the pancreas are destroyed which leads to absolute insulin deficiency.

Causes

  • Self-Allergy: This is when a person’s body develops an allergy against one of it’s own parts. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the allergy is against the beta-cells in the pancreas where insulin is made. These cells become damaged and as a result do not make anymore insulin.

  • Idiopathic: Of unknown origin, arises spontaneously from an unknown cause.

​Treatment

As there is NO Insulin made by the cells of the pancreas anymore, it is necessary to now inject the insulin. There are different kinds of injections that are given at different times of the day as prescribed by your doctor. Refer to our link on medication for more information about insulin injection use.



TYPE 2 DIABETES

​In type 2 diabetes there is either a progressive loss of insulin secretion from the pancreas or insulin resistance (insulin does not work very well) or a combination of both of these.


Causes

It is partially inherited - if you have a family history of type 2 diabetes you have a greater risk of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. It is often called a “disease of lifestyle” because it is linked with being overweight, having an unhealthy diet and not exercising.

Treatment

  • Lifestyle changes are very important! Eating food with fewer calories, carbohydrates and fat. Getting 30minutes of exercise 5 times a week. Losing weight if you are overweight.

  • Medication taken by mouth if blood sugar and HbA1C levels return to near normal. In some cases insulin through an injection may also be necessary.




GESTATIONAL DIABETES

Gestational Diabetes is a temporary condition diagnosed in pregnancy. It is defined as glucose intolerance that is first recognized during pregnancy (second or third trimester) and that is not clearly either type 1 or type 2 diabetes and resolves post-delivery of baby. Risk Factors

  • Repeated glucose in the urine

  • Gestational Diabetes with previous pregnancies

  • Family history (in a first-degree relative) of diabetes

  • History of stillbirths of unknown origin

  • History of high-birth weight infant >4,5kg

  • Obesity (body mass index >30kg/m2)

  • History of polycystic ovarian syndrome

  • History of unexpected perinatal death

​Treatment - Lifestyle changes that include weight-loss, regular exercise and dietary adjustments that include small-to-moderate portions of low glycemic-index carbohydrates. - Pills taken by mouth or in some cases insulin given by injection might be necessary for the duration of the pregnancy. - If blood glucose levels return to normal after delivery, 6weeks later the mother should go for a follow-up test to ensure blood glucose levels remain normal and then yearly thereafter also be screened for diabetes.



For more information, refer to our website.


Written by: Kathrin Ratcliffe

Diabetes Educator

(BDietetics, PostGradDipDiabetes)


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